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Cisco交换机新手配置入门教程

时间:2010-6-22来源:互联网 点击:
本文以Cisco 3750 机型为基础,介绍新手如何对Cisco交换机进行简单配置.

想对交换机警醒配置。一般有两种方法:

1 、控制台端口(Console ):可以直接对交换机进行配置2 、远程登录(Telnet):通过TELNET程序对已经设置了IP的交换机进行远程配置,一般等控制台端口配置好交换机的IP后才可以进行。

除了以上的两种方法外,其实还有两种方法:

1 、WEB 的配置方式。此方法只能配置一般的简单设置2 、硬件自带的应用程序。专用的程序,一般很少用

建立控制台连接到交换机

一般交换机自带一根Console 线,一端连接到交换机的Comsole 口,一端连接到电脑的串行口。打开超级终端,一般就可以连接到交换机。
这样就可以连接到交换机了
  连接到交换机后,如果是第一次启动会要执行初始化操作,一般是设置交换机的名称,密码等一般的信息。

  由于交换机已经初始化,如果要进行初始化操作,那就要进入特权EXEC模式,在命令提示符号下输入:setup,就会启动初始化操作。

刚才讲到了特权EXEC模式,这理就要讲一下觉换机的几种模式,不同的模式可以执行不同的操作命令,首先来说两种基本的模式。

一般为了安全考虑,CISCO将操作会话分为两个不同的访问级别:用户EXEC级别和特权EXEC级别。用户EXEC级别只能使用有限的命令,且交换机显示Switch>提示符,不能对交换机进行配置。看例子,处于用户EXEC级别下的状态:

AITG_FrontekCoreSW>

特权EXEC级别下交换机显示Switch#提示符,能对交换机进行各种配置。看例子,处于特权EXEC级别下的状态:

输入en,进入特权EXEC级别,接着输入密码,进入特权EXEC级别

AITG_FrontekCoreSW>en
Password:
AITG_FrontekCoreSW#

看看,提示符变了,用户在用户EXEC级别输入enable(或en),然后输入密码,就可以进入特权EXEC级别

在交换机提示符下输入“?”,可以列出相应模式下交换机所支持的所有命令。

退出特权EXEC级别模式:disable

再用户EXEC级别输入?可以获得帮助信息:

AITG_FrontekCoreSW>?
Exec commands:
<1-99> Session number to resume
access-enable Create a temporary Access-List entry
clear Reset functions
connect Open a terminal connection
disable Turn off privileged commands
disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection
enable Turn on privileged commands
exit Exit from the EXEC
help Description of the interactive help system
lock Lock the terminal
login Log in as a particular user
logout Exit from the EXEC
name-connection Name an existing network connection
ping Send echo messages
rcommand Run command on remote switch
resume Resume an active network connection
set Set system parameter (not config)
show Show running system information
systat Display information about terminal lines
telnet Open a telnet connection
terminal Set terminal line parameters
traceroute Trace route to destination
tunnel Open a tunnel connection
where List active connections


再特权EXEC级别输入?可以获得帮助信息:

AITG_FrontekCoreSW#?
Exec commands:
<1-99> Session number to resume
access-enable Create a temporary Access-List entry
access-template Create a temporary Access-List entry
archive manage archive files
cd Change current directory
clear Reset functions
clock Manage the system clock
cns CNS agents
configure Enter configuration mode
connect Open a terminal connection
copy Copy from one file to another
debug Debugging functions (see also ‘undebug‘)
delete Delete a file
diagnostic Diagnostic commands
dir List files on a filesystem
disable Turn off privileged commands
disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection
dot1x IEEE 802.1X Exec Commands
enable Turn on privileged commands
eou EAPoUDP
erase Erase a filesystem
exit Exit from the EXEC
format Format a filesystem
fsck Fsck a filesystem
help Description of the interactive help system
ip Global IP commands
lock Lock the terminal
login Log in as a particular user
logout Exit from the EXEC
mkdir Create new directory
monitor Monitoring different system events
more Display the contents of a file
name-connection Name an existing network connection
no Disable debugging functions
no Negate a command or set its defaults
ping Send echo messages
pwd Display current working directory
rcommand Run command on remote switch
reload Halt and perform a cold restart
remote Remote procedures
rename Rename a file
renew Renew
resume Resume an active network connection
rmdir Remove existing directory
rsh Execute a remote command
send Send a message to other tty lines
session Run command on member switch
set Set system parameter (not config)
setup Run the SETUP command facility
show Show running system information
systat Display information about terminal lines
telnet Open a telnet connection
terminal Set terminal line parameters
test Test subsystems, memory, and interfaces
traceroute Trace route to destination
tunnel Open a tunnel connection
udld UDLD protocol commands
undebug Disable debugging functions (see also ‘debug‘)
upgrade Upgrade commands
verify Verify a file
vlan Configure VLAN parameters
vmps VMPS actions
vtp Configure global VTP state
where List active connections
write Write running configuration to memory, network, or terminal

其实还有几种模式如下:
全局配置模式:Switch(config)# 配置交换机的全局参数
接口配置模式:Switch(config-if)# 对交换机的接口进行配置,如某个接口属于那个Vlan,启用及禁用接口等
线路配置模式:Switch(config-line)# 对控制台访问
VLAN数据库配置模式:Switch(Vlan)# 对Vlan的参数进行配置

再稍候我们来慢慢将解这些相应的模式下的作用与用法。

现在我们来继续讲解关于输入Cisco 命令时注意的一些事项与帮助

1.关于帮助

直接使用“?”,可以获得相应模式下的所支持的命令列表,如果再问号前面加上一些命令的开头的字母,就可以获得一些以此字母开头的命令,如:

AITG_FrontekCoreSW#s?

*s=show send session set setup

show systat


输入"S?",就可以获得以S开头的所有字母。

2、命令帮助
  
如果对某个命令的用法不熟悉时,也可以使用“?”来获取其详细的帮助,如想对show的命令作一个具体的了解,可以使用:“show ?”

AITG_FrontekCoreSW#show ?

aaa Show AAA values
access-lists List access lists
accounting Accounting data for active sessions
adjacency Adjacent nodes
aliases Display alias commands
archive Archive functions
arp ARP table
auto Show Automation Template
auto Show Automation Template
boot show boot attributes
buffers Buffer pool statistics
cable-diagnostics Show Cable Diagnostics Results
cca CCA information
cdp CDP information
cef CEF address family independent status
class-map Show QoS Class Map
clock Display the system clock
cluster Cluster information
cns CNS agents
configuration Configuration details
controllers Interface controller status
dampening Display dampening information
debugging State of each debugging option
derived-config Derived operating configuration
dhcp Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol status
diagnostic Show command for diagnostic
dot1q-tunnel Display dot1q tunnel ports
dot1x Dot1x information
dtp DTP information
eap Shows EAP registration/session information
env Environmental facilities
eou EAPoUDP
errdisable Error disable
etherchannel EtherChannel information
exception exception informations
file Show filesystem information
flash1: display information about flash1: file system
flash: display information about flash: file system
flowcontrol show flow control information
history Display the session command history
hosts IP domain-name, lookup style, nameservers, and host table
html HTML helper commands
idb List of Hardware Interface Descriptor Blocks
identity Identity profiles and policies
idprom show IDPROMs for interfaces
interfaces Interface status and configuration
inventory Show the physical inventory
ip IP information
ipc Interprocess communications commands
ipv6 IPv6 information
key Key information
kron Kron Subsystem
l2protocol-tunnel Display L2PT status and configurations
lacp Port channel information
line TTY line information
link Show Link
location Display the system location
logging Show the contents of logging buffers
login Display Secure Login Configurations and State
mac MAC configuration
mac-address-table MAC forwarding table
memory Memory statistics
mls mls global commands
monitor Monitoring different system events
mvr Show mvr global parameters
ntp Network time protocol
pagp Port channel information
parser Show parser commands
platform platform specific show commands
pm Show Port Manager commands
policy-manager Policy Manager
policy-map Show QoS Policy Map
port-security Show secure port information
post Show the results of the system POST
power Switch Power
privilege Show current privilege level
processes Active process statistics
protocols Active network routing protocols
queue Show queue contents
queueing Show queueing configuration
radius Shows radius information
region Region Manager Status
registry Function registry information
reload Scheduled reload information
resource Resource group statistics
rhosts Remote-host+user equivalences
rmon rmon statistics
route-map route-map information
rtr Service Assurance Agent (SAA)
running-config Current operating configuration
scp SCP commands
sdm Switch database management
service-module Service Module commands
sessions Information about Telnet connections
setup Show express setup settings
snmp snmp statistics
spanning-tree Spanning tree topology
stacks Process stack utilization
standby Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) information
startup-config Contents of startup configuration
storm-control Show storm control configuration
subsys Show subsystem information
switch show information about the stack ring
system Show the system configuration
table-map Show Table Map
tacacs Shows tacacs+ server statistics
tcp Status of TCP connections
tech-support Show system information for Tech-Support
template Template information
terminal Display terminal configuration parameters
time-range Time range
track Tracking information
udld UDLD information
users Display information about terminal lines
version System hardware and software status
vlan VTP VLAN status
vmps VMPS version information
vtp VTP information
xdr Show details about XDR

3、显示完整的命令
 
再一个部分命令的后面直接加上“?”就可以显示其输出结果,如例子:

AITG_FrontekCoreSW#show interface ?
Async Async interface
BVI Bridge-Group Virtual Interface
CTunnel CTunnel interface
Dialer Dialer interface
Filter Filter interface
Filtergroup Filter Group interface
GigabitEthernet GigabitEthernet IEEE 802.3z
Loopback Loopback interface
Null Null interface
Port-channel Ethernet Channel of interfaces
Portgroup Portgroup interface
Pos-channel POS Channel of interfaces
Tunnel Tunnel interface
Vif PGM Multicast Host interface
Virtual-Template Virtual Template interface
Virtual-TokenRing Virtual TokenRing
Vlan Catalyst Vlans
accounting Show interface accounting
capabilities Show interface capabilities information
counters Show interface counters
crb Show interface routing/bridging info
dampening Show interface dampening info
debounce Show interface debounce time info
description Show interface description
etherchannel Show interface etherchannel information
fair-queue Show interface Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ) info
fcpa Fiber Channel
flowcontrol Show interface flowcontrol information
irb Show interface routing/bridging info
mac-accounting Show interface MAC accounting info
mpls-exp Show interface MPLS experimental accounting info
mtu Show interface mtu
precedence Show interface precedence accounting info
private-vlan Show interface private vlan information
pruning Show interface trunk VTP pruning information
random-detect Show interface Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) info
rate-limit Show interface rate-limit info
stats Show interface packets & octets, in & out, by switching
path
status Show interface line status
summary Show interface summary
switchport Show interface switchport information
transceiver Show interface transceiver
trunk Show interface trunk information
vlan Show interface vlan information
  Output modifiers


以上是帮助选项,我们再来看看其他的快捷方式:

1、使用TAB键
  
当输入命令的一部分字母时,按下TAB键,系统就可以自动输入此命令的剩余字母,如:

AITG_FrontekCoreSW#sh  ---TAB键
AITG_FrontekCoreSW#show
AITG_FrontekCoreSW#show int  ---TAB键
AITG_FrontekCoreSW#show interfaces

2、命令缩写
  
有些命令没有必要将所有的字母输入完全,输入一部分就可以了,如:

AITG_FrontekCoreSW#sh int   =show interface
Vlan1 is up, line protocol is up
Hardware is EtherSVI, address is 0019.aa89.dd40 (bia 0019.aa89.dd40)
.........

  建议大家最好将命令记全。

. TAG: cisco交换机 配置教程

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